The subbase layer is typically used to protect the pavement from the effects of frost heave and/or concrete slabs were placed directly on top of the subgrade without any base/subbase layers. Concrete strength also comes into play, but most slab concrete is around 3000 to 4000 psi, so it's not a major factor. Many homes have been built on concrete slabs. If you have made the decision to install paving slabs yourself, there are a number of things you need to prepare and some important steps to follow to ensure your patio paving looks good and performs well for many years, letting you get the maximum enjoyment from your outdoor space. DECK-O-DRAIN drainage system provides an effective drainage system for concrete pool decks. Why do they do that? Just for aesthetic. To prevent the need for this financially tasking last resort, installation of proper drainage systems. Stresses which can lead to fracture or deformation of the drainage channels. One of the most common reasons for pouring a concrete slab in the yard is to provide a level multi-purpose surface for anything from outdoor air-conditioning unit to a trash can. Concrete slabs longevity is greatly affected by the movement of the earth. First-floor concrete slabs -What you need to know. The wood will wick up water above the water line, inside the wall and you'll get rot and mold in and on the walls. The basement walls are built and then a concrete slab is poured. Follow exactly. Under Slab Plumbing Properly sloped trenches Story so far. , designed to provide a drainage channel beneath the concrete in floor and wall construction. 2" (50 mm) dia. Sub slab drainage ( or discharge ) system. We have identified the top concrete slab foundation …. Essentially, a slab track consists of a concrete slab placed on a subbase over prepared subgrade. These conditions are usually a major contributor to the movement of the soil under the slab and/or foundation. City Concrete is a licensed concrete contractor in San Diego, CA. 1 AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI : : CHENNAI 600 025 REGULATIONS - 2008 VI TO VIII SEMESTERS AND ELECTIVES B. Our precast concrete product varieties span outdoor fittings, flooring, storm water drainage, sewage drainage, security walls etc. THE TOOLS YOU NEED TO BUILD A CONCRETE SLAB. Fast … Foundation Drainage Read More ». Driveways, sidewalks, concrete foundations, roads, streets, slabs and other residential and commercial applications. SES removed the existing distressed membrane back to the bare slab. CIP 4 - Cracking Concrete Surfaces WHAT are Some Forms of Cracks? Concrete, like other construction materials, contracts and expands with changes in moisture and temperature, and deflects depending on load and support conditions. Slab Piers Push Piers with Exterior Drainage Systems L. (2) See EPG 751. of 2" thick concrete patio slab with rebar, wire mesh, and aggregate/sand base. Two common foundations are mat foundations (shallow) and pile foundations (deep). A 2% slope will probably ensure better drainage. A sunbathed patio on the south or west side of your home will, of course, dry faster than a shaded concrete surface. Ground-bearing concrete floor slabs should be at least 100mm thick, including monolithic screed where appropriate. Slab foundations are made up of a concrete slab that is typically 6 to 8 inches thick. A concrete slab that is 10 feet long should have a slope away from the home of 2 1/2 inches. This is the final step and quite easy to do. NO MORE WET. I'm wondering if anyone has any advice on how to install floor drains in a concrete slab. Soil Erosion – If there is no proper drainage around the house’s soil, then the earth will gradually become loose with retention of moisture. They are: Establish finish floor level high enough above the natural ground level so that finish grade around the house can be sloped away for good drainage. Pervious concrete (also called porous concrete, permeable concrete, no fines concrete and porous pavement) is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing groundwater recharge. Durability. My options for adding plumbing and drain lines are: A) Cut, break up, and remove the existing foundation in the appropriate places and re-pour after the. With over 40 years of experience, we offer concrete solutions for all types of applications, including:. Figures 4-9 through 4-11, and 4-15 show configurations with insulation on the exterior surface of the foundation. You will need to use a cement product rather than gravel, since you want the water to run off the slab. Final color and product selection should be made from actual samples. The material color mixes while preparing the concrete. Plastic-shrinkage cracks are of varying lengths spaced from a few centimeters (inches) up to 3 m (10 ft) apart and often penetrate to mid-depth of a slab. Leaky plumbing, appliances, or roofing can introduce water that is then absorbed by the concrete slab. This is called a Raised Concrete Slab Foundation and is accomplished by pouring the slab on a raised perimeter wall made of poured concrete or masonry block. Soil Erosion – If there is no proper drainage around the house’s soil, then the earth will gradually become loose with retention of moisture. Stamped concrete can make a dramatic impression, and there are many reasons why homeowners, businesses, and municipalities are choosing stamped concrete to enhance their landscapes and buildings. This question is regarding the proper way to create drainage for a slab on grade construction. Need mudjacking in the Atlanta, Georgia area? You've come to the right place. But the reason for including any fall, rather than making the surface level, is to allow the concrete surface to drain. Main drain. Our pipes have been used for countless miles of roadways and drainage projects throughout Ireland and the UK over the past 20 Years. topping and a drainage hole small hollow open throughout a part or assembly that is usually used for fastening parts with bolts or other such objects Hole is created in the same way as bolts. How much does a 40×60 concrete slab cost? It would be about $8,500 to $12,000 for a 40×60 foot concrete slab, 6 inches thick. Professional Concrete Contractor Austin, TX. The term floating slab basement means that the concrete slab is able to move up and down as the ground moves or freezes. Also a bit of water sips through some cracks in the slab. Our product line includes both commercial and residential steps and rails, septic tanks, basement entrances, retaining walls, utility products, road dividers and more. I can't find a pipe that will fit under the tub to connect that way, so I either have to raise. SES removed the existing distressed membrane back to the bare slab. Then if necessary, use a self-leveling compound to get the floor perfectly level. Home / Products & Services / GB / Precast Concrete / Drainage / Gullies & Gully… Drainage and Water Management. Plumbing in Concrete Slab. Concrete Block Sizes A concrete block is actually mainly used as a construction material in the building of wall structures. A vapor retarder (see Description, above) is placed between the granular drainage system and the concrete slab to minimize moisture vapor transmission or soil gas transmission into the occupied space. Ground Services is an industry leading contractor in Orlando foundation repair and concrete. Bendigo Precast Concrete can deliver around Bendigo and surrounding towns as far as Heathcote. Home Site Map - S teps - Foundations-Fill Under Slab (This step has already been done as part of forming the footings, so this separate step will be deleted from the web site. Mat foundations. DrainGuard composite foundation drainage systems drain groundwater away from the exterior of your foundation or basement. I wouldn't place any metal reinforcement in a 2" pour. You will need to use a cement product rather than gravel, since you want the water to run off the slab. The material color mixes while preparing the concrete. 01 Concrete overlay for the precast concrete slab bridge deck will not be measured but will be paid for at the Contract lump sum price for the pertinent Superstructure Concrete item. , designed to provide a drainage channel beneath the concrete in floor and wall construction. Frequently it's referred to as a concrete masonry unit. For hand troweling work especially, kneeling boards provide a smooth way to support your weight on the wet concrete while moving easily along the slab surface. top of pavement with typical c. Note: Slab construction can also have the slab raised above the existing grade in areas that are not level (sloped), prone to heavy water drainage, or for pure aesthetics (curb appeal). But on a decorative concrete project, a drainage system can ruin the effect the designer is trying to create. If providing adequate drainage is a problem because of other building structures surrounding the concrete slab, you may wish to consider the addition of a drain on. Which REALLY means that at some point in the near future I will need to repeat the process, hopefully with a 4 inch saw and drain this time to allow for higher drainage. A trap will help to make cleaning your drain much easier and will keep larger debris out of the drain. Additionally, this larger bracket. Construction Tools for Finishing Concrete. Sub slab bat drainage system excavation before concrete slab floor floor drain basics shower drain concrete slab issue 7 4 floor and wall coverings The Best Way To Repair A Hole In Concrete Slab Before TilingThe Best Way To Repair A Hole In Concrete Slab Before TilingExcavation Before Concrete Slab Floor Poured Main Line MiniInstall… Read More ». California State Contractor License #995021. Overfill holes with 2 part epoxy injection. Many homes built on slab foundations have pipes running under the concrete slab. (rendering process) BEFORE. selfbuildblog. If it’s installed right, it will last a lifetime. It is recommended that you drill and pin (3/8" rebar) the base at 3 foot intervals to stabilize against any movement in the concrete slab. A mat foundation is a thick reinforced concrete slab supporting arrangements of columns or walls in a row or rows and transmitting the loads to the soil. The house is on a slab, and I really don't want to break up the slab and my new tile job to get to it. How do you repair a drain under a concrete slab? Having a drain that is blocked or needs repairing is disruptive enough, but what do you do if that drain is located under a concrete slab?. To install a French drain the first step is to dig a 6-inch-wide by 18- to 24-inch-deep trench around the perimeter of the slab. Identification of substance Precast concrete products Product description Precast concrete paving, kerbs, channels, block paving, drainage channels, walling products & specific decorative products marketed under many different range names Manufacturer/Supplier Marshalls Landscape Division Landscape House Premier Way Lowfields Business Park. This drainage channel get connects to the cement floor slab at the base of each exterior wall and as the water. The Reflectix 48 in. You must take special care in dealing with the effluent of the drain to make sure that you are in compliance with local codes and regulations. Dirt and gravel floors are subject to erosion when drainage is a concern for your site location. Get The Most Quotes For Your Concrete Slab & Save Up To 40%. Shop Menards for concrete forms to create poured foundation walls and foundation drainage systems. Concrete Architectural Slab Colors and Textures* * Photographs show the general appearance of color and textures. Shwetha, Shyam Sundar Chairman, Mr. After I jackhammer up the concrete and install the tub trap and drainage into the toilet drain, how do I seal the floor under the tub? The outside part is open and it should be easy to pour concrete. There are many different soil conditions and corresponding slab designs. We now have a big hole in the atrium ($2,000) exposing a thoroughly coroded galvanized pipe, with the plumber saying that it's like that all the way through to the sewer line on the. It is easy to handle, install and transport. 7/5 from 80 reviews. Exterior Basement Insulation Installing a layer of exterior foam insulation is one of the most effective ways to reduce foundation energy loss and protect against moisture problems. Affordable Concrete Raising of Frankfort, IL is a concrete raising and leveling company specializing in raising, lifting, repairing, leveling, and stabilizing sunken concrete slabs using a method called Concrete Raising. The term floating slab basement means that the concrete slab is able to move up and down as the ground moves or freezes. Add washed stone to protect the drain tile. The garage has been already knocked down with only a meter high wall left at the back which is also retaining a bank of soil. stone can be heavier than brick or concrete block veneers – structural support and foundations may need to be larger; Definition and Assumptions. Reinforcing steel for slabs is primarily parallel to slab. You can also use a cement mixer if available. If you just want to raise a portion of the floor above a good concrete slab you could use a dry pack mortar like is used in tile showers. When installing tile outside: Choose a tile with a slip resistant surface that’s rated for outdoor use. nz , Tel: Professionals helpline - 0800 80 80 85 - is available free to those who work. My questions are, how far should the yard grade (sod) be below the bottom of the siding and what should be the minimum percent of slope from that. The concrete needs anywhere from 1 to 14 days to cure, depending on the weather and conditions. These concrete catch basins can be used for 4" PVC, ADS, SDR, DWV and Sch40 pipe. These products find application in road construction, commercial and residential construction, railway platforms, and telecommunications. When the slab does deflect, drainage toward the living area is almost certain. The house then sits on the slab. Cut concrete floor at least 14” away from foundation wall (wider if footing is in the way). Amazon's Choice for floor drain concrete. Local Concrete Slab Jacking in Downers Grove, IL. Most pavers are 2-3" (5-8cm) in height, plus your drainage layer. Foundation or Concrete Problems? Edens Structural Solutions specializes in foundation & concrete repair. Also try to find out how much gravel is under your concrete slab ground water is normal but I would concern with the previous workmen ship. Concrete slabs settle due to voids or unstable soil. As the ground under the slab gets saturated with runoff, moisture leaches up through the concrete and makes a soggy mess of everything stored on the floor. Concrete suppliers sometimes add water to make the concrete easier to work with, but this weakens the concrete. A protection course is a puncture-resistant material designed to minimize or prevent possible damage to the waterproofing membrane prior to or during concrete pour and backfilling. We also manufacture an efficient surface water attenuation system or SuDS systems. Depending on the application these prefabricated concrete channels with galvanized cast iron or stainless steel rails are available. Tactile Paver. It comes in various patterns and colors and is cheaper. Precast Concrete is a specialist manufacturer of a full range of concrete products, including architectural and structural precast concrete, glass fibre reinforced concrete (GRC) and street and landscape furniture. Bill Houston Concrete Construction, Inc. With over 40 years of experience, we offer concrete solutions for all types of applications, including:. A concrete slab that is 10 feet long should have a slope away from the home of 2 1/2 inches. Since there are no foundation walls in a pole building a floating slab can be poured inside the poles using the skirt board for forms. I plan to lay a concrete floor with insulation. A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete. The shower is 24" away so the main drain line is close. Need mudjacking in the Atlanta, Georgia area? You've come to the right place. I suspect that the base under the slab is in poor condition. Most Concrete slabs are designed to have a compressive strength of 3000 psi. Install drain tile (perforated plastic drainage pipe) along the exterior (or interior) of the footings of basement and crawlspace walls to provide drainage around the foundations. Radon mitigation fans draw not just soil gas from the ground but also indoor air from the house through the concrete slab. Our Basement Drainage System. Remove of all existing vegetation of new on-grade concrete slab construction area. A standard concrete mix is 2,500-psi. Installing a bathtub on a concrete slab [ 3 Answers ] I have a toilet in the basement with proper vent. Tracey Concrete’s Spigot and Socket pipes are ideal for surface storm water and foul water systems. This layer may be formed by excessive surface trowelling of concrete. And moisture can still be an issue at grade so concrete foundations must be designed to include proper moisture drainage. The backfill material itself also significantly affects water drainage around the wall. Bridge deck surface drainage shall be carried off and collected beyond the bridge approach slab. Is it possible to make an addition to a Denver home that is a monolithic slab on grade vs a foundation that then has lumber flooring with a crawlspace? We are preparing plans and have been told a connected addition cannot be slab on grade. We drain to the street and at the bottom of the drive 3/4 mile away. Styles: Furniture, Toys, Frames, Beds, Animal Houses, Racks, Dressers, Chairs, Coasters, And Many More. Discover where to buy. More Buying Choices $44. thickness approx. " Vapor barriers have been associated with certain concrete slab-on-grade problems including curling and cracking. Some bright minds, presumably about 50 years ago, terminated drain holes inside the garage. It can also run under. All new residential building projects must have a set of approved building plans and with that, your architect would have appointed a building engineer that is responsible for the design and layout of the concrete slabs on your building project. Final color and product selection should be made from actual samples. Plastic-shrinkage cracks are of varying lengths spaced from a few centimeters (inches) up to 3 m (10 ft) apart and often penetrate to mid-depth of a slab. The plumber will have to dig through the slab to get to the pipe and another company will have to mend the mess caused by the plumbing job. Adding crushed stone under concrete is an excellent way to allow water to drain, because it can flow through the spaces between rocks, thereby preventing it from standing underneath the surface. Caution will be exercised to avoid undermining slab footing and to avoid damage of underground utilities. Installing a Monolithic Concrete slab start to finish 'Dirt Boss' #alaskanslab #concrete #excavator - Duration: 14:50. Cut concrete floor at least 14” away from foundation wall (wider if footing is in the way). It is best to use a laser level to align the forms for proper drainage. 855-663-9876, Fax 814-454-7929 In Canada | Zurn Industries Limited 3544 Nashua Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1L2 · Ph. And it's ONLY where that tile was set. Use a scratch template, typically, a piece of 2-by-4 or 2-by-6 lumber equal to the specified slab thickness with stakes attached to the top surface at each end, or a string line across the top of the forms to. I say finished space because if you are moving the lines in a concrete slab located in an unfinished basement, the job can still be major, but the dust and debris created are usually not a large concern. Installing a bathtub on a concrete slab [ 3 Answers ] I have a toilet in the basement with proper vent. That’s based on national averages of around $5 per square foot for a fully engineered, finished concrete slab, including labor and materials. The following are some of the signs that confirm homeowners have sunken concrete:. One section has a void that goes about 2 meters in under the slab, whats the best way to fill the void?. Approximate layout is four 40' wide trains x 100' long (side by side so they share one base). The soil should be graded, or sloped, so the excavation site's center is. Drainage Above Ground Drainage Below Ground Drainage. When a basement or cellar is being remodeled to add a bathroom the concrete is removed to add new plumbing for the fixtures. Home / Products & Services / GB / Precast Concrete / Drainage. com In the Dallas, Fort Worth metroplex, wet slab foundation drainage issues and prevention is an important topic. Wet Slab Foundation | Drainage Issues And Prevention. Pouring concrete is on the cusp of what many do-it-yourselfers will tackle, but with the right preparations and knowledge you can really build something worthwhile. Many contractors use vapor barriers directly under the slab to slow moisture permeation. Under Slab Tunneling vs Cutting Slabs for Foundation Repair. Description. Pretensioned Concrete Spread Box Beams (X-Beams) ♦ Materials ♦ Geometric Constraints ♦ Structural Analysis ♦ Design Criteria 11. 3 Concrete Slab with Two Individual Rail Troughs Figure 4. Install the drain grate on your concrete patio once the cement has dried. By utilizing a French drain, a homeowner can minimize the possibility of that occurring. The International Code Council (ICC) is a non-profit organization dedicated to developing model codes and standards used in the design, build and compliance process. We show you the best techniques and tools so you get concrete forms right the first time. Pour some water on your concrete or paved surface and see where it drains. The Gravel base has as its major function to distribute the load uniformly over the soil surface. For this reason, this cost is eliminated. This can be a problem made worse by melting snow or a heavy rain. 2) Steel working stress (fc) – typically a value equivalent to 75% of the steel yield strength is used for working stress. Definition of Sub slab drainage / discharge system ( SSDS ) in Construction. Use a scratch template, typically, a piece of 2-by-4 or 2-by-6 lumber equal to the specified slab thickness with stakes attached to the top surface at each end, or a string line across the top of the forms to. If you are using high shrinkage concrete, you might want to decrease the cut spacing. I want to add a bathtub near the toilet. Without crushed stone, pooling water will settle under it and erode your slab. Innovative EZ1™ technology simplifies product installation, including concrete shield for 1-1/4" of available vertical post pour adjustment, pre-packaged shims for tilt correction, integrally protected light duty strainer, and rough-in cover for protection. Complete kits with a choice of Grate. com In the Dallas, Fort Worth metroplex, wet slab foundation drainage issues and prevention is an important topic. Pro Foundation Technology, Inc. Concrete Slab Cost. Step 1 Mark the location of the drainage trench onto the concrete with spray paint. Whether it is a tower downtown, a new arena, new sidewalks, a stamped patio, or concrete countertops, Unicon has what you need. Special support legs attach to channel sides and speed installation. What size slab will you be using? Marshalls Concrete Paving Flag Natural 900 x 600 x 50mm. Remove of all existing vegetation of new on-grade concrete slab construction area. Often times your distressed slab is the result of poor drainage and soil conditions around the foundation. 5% for the piping depending on the minimums allowed. drawing no. Many homes have been built on concrete slabs. BG Concrete drainage channels are produced in nominal widths 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 500 with or without internal gradient. Remove the sod and soil to the desired depth. In order to avoid any cracking and to just generally ensure that your slab lasts longer, it's important to have proper drainage for your concrete. Concrete Slab Leveling or Mudjacking $4. Drainage pipes and radiant heat tubes should be placed and attached to the wire mesh before pouring your concrete slab. Another issue that could cause erosion under concrete is a burst water pipe. c6-2 girder haunch detail & reinforcement detail. Main drain Collector drain. Other factors that can increase the cost of an under slab leak repair job are trees, larger lots requiring more trenching, larger houses requiring more tunneling, and drain lines under concrete patios and. If the slab leak is on the pressure side of the drains, it can typically be unearthed prior to triggering a lot of destruction. The height of the timber used for your formwork should equal the thickness of your concrete slab to enable you to screed the finished surface level with the top of the formwork. The structural slab system used to support plaza decks can be any one of the basic slab designs. We also manufacture an efficient surface water attenuation system or SuDS systems. Regardless of what your d…. To give the slab pier something to “lift”, a slab bracket is positioned beneath the concrete slab. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Not only is concrete versatile, but it can also replicate a range of natural stone designs at a fraction of the price. If the slab runs 30 feet along the front of the house, then the drainage issue will be to change the slope of the slab along the 8 (inch or feet?) dimension from the brick wall. We are a locally owned foundation repair company providing services to the Dallas - Fort Worth Metroplex and Surrounding areas. FREE Shipping by Amazon. The drain tile flows to a sump pit which holds the sump pump. Subgrades and Subbases for Concrete Slabs Having good support for your concrete slab on ground is critical to success By Bill Palmer, Concrete Network Columnist A well-compacted subgrade keeps construction out of the mud and provides uniform slab support. If you have carpeted floors, search for areas that look darker or are unexpectedly damp. HLM 5000 is a one-component, black, moisture-curing, bitumen-modified polyurethane elastomeric waterproofing membrane for exterior below-grade or between-slab applications. Drainage pipes may also be placed beneath the slab and connected to a sump. THE TOOLS YOU NEED TO BUILD A CONCRETE SLAB. The spillway chute is designed with subsurface drainage system of floor slabs consisting of alternate strips of concrete footing and gravel bed to aid in the control of uplift. The average cost of slabjacking to raise a concrete slab is between $511 and $1,790, with most spending $830. The Stormtech narrow profile drainage systems are particularly suited to restrictive suspended slab areas with designed contours and inclines; offering excellent drainage possibilities and unique ‘no stepdown’ provisions to support universal access. Another Take on a Concrete-Free Slab Footings for ICFs were poured and cured; and drainage was handled with corrugated pipe covered with gravel and a filter membrane. Alright, so there are a few conditions to consider when planning for concrete drainage. 1 Required design elements—Following are the minimum items that should be addressed in the construction. Improving the drainage can help to stabilize the foundational soils and therefore stabilize the residence. Home Site Map - S teps - Foundations-Fill Under Slab (This step has already been done as part of forming the footings, so this separate step will be deleted from the web site. All the same, you may want to pour the slab two to three feet wider than. 01-5 DECK SLAB DRAINAGE INLET HYDRAULICS: General: The two types of drainage inlets used by the Structure and Bridge Division for deck slab drainage are as follows: • Downspout drainage inlets • Grate drainage inlets For drainage inlet details, see File No. concrete floors do not necessarily require strong support from the sub-grade. for a 6" slab with thicker edges, styrofoam beneath the slab, and wire mesh. concrete pavers, here are the pros and cons of concrete, beginning with its advantages: Durability – Concrete is one of the most durable construction materials on the market. Insert a video inspection tool into the sewer pipe and look for evidence of tree roots growing inside the pipe. for concrete floor construction are found in ACI 360R for slabs-on-ground, ACI 223R for shrinkage-compensating concrete floors, and ACI 421. Most fiberglass and plastic materials are also extremely susceptible to UV degradation. I can't find a pipe that will fit under the tub to connect that way, so I either have to raise. The pimples on the surface create an added traction for maximum slip/skid performance. If you have made the decision to install paving slabs yourself, there are a number of things you need to prepare and some important steps to follow to ensure your patio paving looks good and performs well for many years, letting you get the maximum enjoyment from your outdoor space. If the slab leak is on the pressure side of the drains, it can typically be unearthed prior to triggering a lot of destruction. Looking for someone to quote us on some work. Re: Drilling Hole in Concrete Slab for Plant Drainage Where you bought the planter, should have a tray that goes under it to catch the drainage. Tracey Concrete manufacture Seating Slabs to suit all of our Cover Slab openings. For this reason, this cost is eliminated. Pond curing is another great way to cure concrete, and the process is just as it sounds: You form temporary berms around a new concrete slab, and then flood the area. The International Code Council (ICC) is a non-profit organization dedicated to developing model codes and standards used in the design, build and compliance process. By using Gapfast the landscape architect/civil engineer does not have to rely alone on the horizontal bond strength between the paving unit and the bedding mortar. Large Flat Work (Slope): Sites requiring drainage to trenches, catch basins or sumps use pre-established grading devices such as pipes or flat bars. They come in different lengths. otherwise you can set your driveway to anything you want assuming the building department will approve it. Dimensions of manhole biscuit Internal Dimension : 750 x 600mm External Dimension : 865 x 715mm Height : 120mm Weight : 67kgs Description. Kleeschulte Concrete was established in 1994. From a foundation to a new driveway, how much does a concrete slab cost to install? Cement slabs create a strong, durable foundation for hot tubs, propane tanks, sheds and other structures. Often times piping and utility hookups are set up to run through the slab. Reported by: ProMatcher Research Team. 952-944-3778 4212 W 109th St. Subgrades and Subbases for Concrete Slabs Having good support for your concrete slab on ground is critical to success By Bill Palmer, Concrete Network Columnist A well-compacted subgrade keeps construction out of the mud and provides uniform slab support. This page is about how to build a thickened edge concrete slab on grade FPSF footing on soil with a high water table to prevent frost heave, by first installing drainage below the slab. (every other course). It's gently sloped to guide water back to the street. Given that we have pure sand my thinking is that the water will drain down (very good drainage on our site). What depth should the concrete go down to and how thick should the slab be? Also, should I use roughly 150mm of hardcore? Will the concrete slab need to be reinforced. Comparing pea gravel vs. It also is permanent so any mistakes are also permanent. Re: Ground Water Seepage into Concrete Slab Home 02/26/2008 10:18 AM The cheaper route is to install a perimeter drain to the drainage swale as you have stated. Polyjacking is an efficient and cost effective long term solution to level concrete for same day use. An uneven concrete slab can be an incredibly frustrating thing to deal with. If there's no existing drainage in the Slav then you're going to have to get the concrete cut, pipes installed then re-concreted back over again. A second generation family-owned business, Concrete Products was founded in 1960 as Krete Kraft, Inc. If your landscape prevents you from pitching the patio to allow for natural water runoff, your concrete contractor can install an in-slab drainage system with gravel-filled channels to carry the water away. To install a French drain the first step is to dig a 6-inch-wide by 18- to 24-inch-deep trench around the perimeter of the slab. Install a precast concrete sidewalk slab seamless texture of old concrete slab building a greenhouse foundation concrete slab over the vault ultimate cheat sheet for concrete slabs quality concrete slab design. Concrete slab foundations don't require floor joists, as required with pier and beam structures. Manhole Depth Design. Just level the shed!. Ensure adequate drainage of water at the base of the cut, in cut-and-fill situations. Concrete Slab and Wall Design Spreadsheet Download Link Concrete Beam and slab to CSA A23 spreadsheet cad details cad free concrete Culvert drainage drawing. for public works construction. benching concrete between outside top surface of pipe and chamber ring minimum radius of exposed arrises to be 40. Bull Float to Smooth the Surface. This shop building has an existing 4 slab already poured. Specifically, a concrete slab on grade may be subjected to concentrated post or wheel loading. When I put a bubble level on it, the bubble is about 2/3 between the lines, 1/3 outside the lines. Another advantage of having a concrete slab foundation is that it's generally less expensive to build. Affordable Concrete Raising of Frankfort, IL is a concrete raising and leveling company specializing in raising, lifting, repairing, leveling, and stabilizing sunken concrete slabs using a method called Concrete Raising. Do You Pour Concrete Into Tub Drain Areas In Slab? I have read that the reason wet concrete is not put into the hole is in case repairs are needed. Environment Agency Guide; 2020 Septic Tank Regulations; British Water Sizing Criteria; Building Regulations. Seams should be set into the surface of your slab to manage cracking for surface areas greater than 60” in width. In this video I show how to install a water drain system to capture water running off a concrete slab. This is done by using adequate drainage and by the use of vapor retarders. The walls could be on the edge of the concrete slab (assuming slab is square) but not larger. In areas of very expansive soil, some builders have used post-tensioned foundations, which consist of a slab & footing system utilizing steel cables tightened through the slab. For this reason, this cost is eliminated. The Stormtech narrow profile drainage systems are particularly suited to restrictive suspended slab areas with designed contours and inclines; offering excellent drainage possibilities and unique ‘no stepdown’ provisions to support universal access. Wherever specified, the system effectively collects and carries water away quickly from pool decks and other patio areas. Concrete saw cutting overview. Inadequate drainage around the slab exacerbates the risk of any source of moisture. There is a drainage hole outside our garden, but because of the slope, the water doesn't flow there. 136,866 Concrete Slab Jobs Listed. Causes of Excess Moisture in a Concrete Slab. A concrete slab is a structural feature, usually of constant thickness, that can be used as a floor or a roof. Main drain Collector drain. Founded in 1982 by Ralph Sears, S&S Concrete Contractors, Inc. Before you begin, make sure your concrete is properly sloped and doesn't puddle. But putting dry redi mix there seems silly, since it might get wet and become hard. The only deviation that I have found to be discretionary is cooking time. Affordable Concrete Raising of Frankfort, IL is a concrete raising and leveling company specializing in raising, lifting, repairing, leveling, and stabilizing sunken concrete slabs using a method called Concrete Raising. Press "Next Page" green arrow below to continue. DrainGuard composite foundation drainage systems drain groundwater away from the exterior of your foundation or basement. (rendering process) BEFORE. pro woodwork projects. May 3, 2017 at 9:53 pm. This is the final step and quite easy to do. , designed to provide a drainage channel beneath the concrete in floor and wall construction. Step 1 Mark the location of the drainage trench onto the concrete with spray paint. drainage slope on concrete slab View only topic: Collection of Best Practices edited by the moderator. Final color and product selection should be made from actual samples. A drainage groove is an indentation in concrete that allows water to drain away from a foundation or into a drainage system. Drainage pipes and radiant heat tubes should be placed and attached to the wire mesh before pouring your concrete slab. Concrete Slab & Girder (Pan Form) standards are available. In most cases a shake of the bull float can fill flat bar void. They are heavy duty, reinforced concrete slabs and act as a platform to cap the manhole chamber as well as to provide a base for any regulating brickwork prior to finishing with the manhole lid. Cracking of concrete slabs is a common occurrence, but it is not necessarily a major problem. The non-woven filter fabric and high density polyethylene core form a channel for water to flow through. DRAINAGE CHANNEL CONCRETE Paving Plastic Garden Mould Slab Tile Paving Decking - £8. You will need to use a cement product rather than gravel, since you want the water to run off the slab. Dirt and gravel floors are subject to erosion when drainage is a concern for your site location. In extreme cases where there is extensive damage to the slab, neither the use of slab jacking nor sectional slab repair techniques will be enough. But they mustn't be used for household drainage or sewage, and should never flow into the sewerage system. The tools you'll need for forming a concrete slab are: Hammer, nails, tape measure, string, pencil, stakes, laser level. It is very important to ensure the radiant heating and concrete is laid on top of the WHITE side of the product (foil side facing down to ground) to avoid corrosion of the foil by the non-cured concrete alkaline. 5" deck screws - We like these better than a hammer an nails for fastening the forms together. Concrete Slab Concrete Wall Gate Valve Scupper Drain (at Water Tank ) Bell Trap Floor Drain ( Use For Slab On Ground ) Cast Iron Cast Iron Body With Flashing Flange Wastewater Drain Pipe Bend Gutter Debris Guard Slots Roof Drain Floor Drain ( Use For Slab Above Ceiling ) P-trap Sediment Bucket Claenout Plug Adaptor Drainage Slope Grate Clamping. Isn't going to be an easy job. php/site/comments/heated-towel-rads https://www. If you have carpeted floors, search for areas that look darker or are unexpectedly damp. LowSpan provides longer clear spans due to its prestressed top slab. The case studies below gives designers, engineers and contractors confidence in using the world's best trench drain. Adding 1” of sand over the insulation will facilitate water drainage and shorten the actual curing time. Building a shed on concrete that's sloped to drain? which is a concrete slab that surrounds my house. Founded in 1982 by Ralph Sears, S&S Concrete Contractors, Inc. There are two basic types of drains: trench or channel drains that collect water at one end of a slope, and catch basin or area drains that drain the water from the middle of a slab. The tensile strength of concrete is typically taken as 10 to 15% of the compressive strength, so only about 400 or 500 psi. Do not hesitate to call. To install a French drain the first step is to dig a 6-inch-wide by 18- to 24-inch-deep trench around the perimeter of the slab. drainage slope on concrete slab View only topic: Collection of Best Practices edited by the moderator. The concrete floor slab itself provides structural support for floor loads and suitable backup for floor coverings and finishes. Some are tunnel only advocates while others push the slab cutting alternative. Drainage Rings, Dry Wells & Well Tiles Every week hundreds of drainage rings of all different sizes are produced from our forms. One solution is to remove the slab and. • Minimum grade 4,000 psi compressive strength cement concrete surround. Discover where to buy. In the mudjacking process, we pump a mixture of cement, aggregate, and water under the surface of your sunken concrete slab, which raises the concrete surface to its original level, making it look as good as new. Low Maintenance Cost. Unfortunately, if you have clay-heavy soil, then you may run into. Detail B5 - Paving over concrete slab. There is no drainage retention on the lot. All fixings into concrete should be of a chemically injected type in order to maintain the integrity of the waterproofing and substrate. It's also easier to strip the forms when the slab pour is done. Depending on the application these prefabricated concrete channels with galvanized cast iron or stainless steel rails are available. Poor Drainage; Poor Soil Preparation; Symptoms of Foundation Problems. The major leakage zone in any basement is the perimeter, where basement walls meet the slab floor. 6 inch wide Polycast 600 Polyester Polymer concrete trench drain. Since the 1970s, concrete slab foundations have become the main way homes are constructed. Briefly put, here's what these major types of foundations entail: 1. Removal of 18″ of the concrete floor slab is needed to allow placement of the drain tile. Drainage mat is principally designed to reduce hydrostatic head pressure and direct water to a perforated drainage system. If you prefer softer eggs, use less than 14 minutes. And according to ACI 302. Ltd commenced business in September 1996,with a staff combing together many decades of knowledge and experience within the precast concrete, transport and specialists drainage industries. The drain tile flows to a sump pit which holds the sump pump. The standard range includes precast concrete flexible jointed pipes and fittings from 225mm to 1800mm diameter, a full range of chamber rings, cover slabs, house inspection chambers, caissons, road gullies, box culverts, catchpits and preformed chamber sections. Install drain tile (perforated plastic drainage pipe) along the exterior (or interior) of the footings of basement and crawlspace walls to provide drainage around the foundations. See our pages, Checking Over the Concrete Slab, Drain Pipes, and Plumbing in the Walls, for other items to review and check. 1 thought on "Code Requirements for Concrete Slabs on Grade" bob. In most cases, drainage is the most important aspect of concrete slab costs. A drainage groove is an indentation in concrete that allows water to drain away from a foundation or into a drainage system. Concrete drainage provides proven long term performance and can help minimize lifetime costs. My thought is that I could eliminate a pump truck visit when I start my storm shelter project also screeding and finishing a mono slab would be alot easier than doing it with the icf walls in place. Sub slab drainage ( or discharge ) system. A work associate has a similar problem. By utilizing a French drain, a homeowner can minimize the possibility of that occurring. This question is regarding the proper way to create drainage for a slab on grade construction. Concrete Paving Slab. Concrete slab installation costs a minimum of $5. Concrete leveling prices depend on the size and condition of the slab and soil conditions. We repair slabs, pools, sidewalks, foundations, steep, stoops, driveways, garage slabs, and other concrete surfaces. Please type the text you see in the image into the text box and submit. You can also use a cement mixer if available. Mudjacking: aka: slab jacking, concrete leveling, and concrete raising. Under serviceable design loads and proper installation, polymer concrete can often outlast the life of the concrete slab. Garage's floor is concrete slab 3"-4" thick (at least it's best I could figure). If in concrete slab could run $400-600 range ballpark assuming you do the concrete patching yourself - if accessible from top or bottom (preferable) or you cut the concrete slot from current to new drain location and provide right size opening there, more like $250 probably - add about $150 to these numbers if local code requires use of cast iron or ductile iron sewer pipe. Also a bit of water sips through some cracks in the slab. The plasmatic core is a seven-layer matrix designed for toughness and provides the lowest water vapor transmission (WVT) rating on the market. Re: plumbing drain for bathtub on concrete slab? Similar thread, does anyone have rough-in measurements handy for a standard 30 or 32 inch tub--like a lasko or similar--I'd like to cement the trap to the waste pipe and be able to drop the tub exactly into place, thereby only having to tighten the nut at the cleanout/drain spud to the waste pipe by reaching around the wall. This page covers checking the sewer and water pipes in a slab. Concrete slab foundations don't require floor joists, as required with pier and beam structures. And it should have been included with the planter FREE, at the time of purchase. Wet concrete on skin can cause everything from mild redness to third-degree, permanently disfiguring chemical burns. Builder says ok (even though he considers this overkill), but it’ll cost us dearly in extra gravel. Imposed loads varies from approximately 1. Concrete slab shower drain guidance drainage reshaping our footprint page 2 how to plumb a bat bathroom the how to fit a shower tray the family the average to move a shower drain Moving Shower Drain Concrete Bat Plumbing Diy HomeHow To Install A Fibergl …. The cracks in this case ranged in width (measured across the crack) from "hairline" (less than 1/16") to. We also manufacture an efficient surface water attenuation system or SuDS systems. A concrete contractor builds structures from concrete, often handling every step of the process from mixing ingredients to building the retaining structure to pouring and settling the mix. I’m laying new surface water drains which will run under the concrete slab of my kitchen extension and connect to the house surface water drainage. The conventional method of setting precast concrete, stone or other type paving slabs into a sand, gravel or mortar bed has had a deleterious effect on many types of promenade and other deck systems. Step 1 Mark the location of the drainage trench onto the concrete with spray paint. NO MORE WET. For the interior balcony in Fig. We now have a big hole in the atrium ($2,000) exposing a thoroughly coroded galvanized pipe, with the plumber saying that it's like that all the way through to the sewer line on the. Concrete topping slab is an overlay designed to provide a dense, abrasion-resistant, and a finished floor surface for multiple purposes such as providing a wearing course to support traffic loads in parking facilities and bus terminals, providing a level surface for interior floors, providing special base for electrical and mechanical equipment. Calculation Description: "GRDSLAB" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of concrete slabs on grade. Another advantage of having a concrete slab foundation is that it's generally less expensive to build. A device embedded in a concrete slab for drainage of moisture which collects between a waterproof isolating layer (I) applied to the top surface and the concrete slab itself, and/or moisture which passes through a layer (S) deposited on the top of said isolating layer, said drainage device comprising; a drainpipe (20) embedded in said concrete slab (B) and having its upper end. Slab Piers Push Piers with Exterior Drainage Systems L. Poor Drainage; Poor Soil Preparation; Symptoms of Foundation Problems. Accessing the concrete slab means digging through the concrete with a jack hammer, resulting in some pretty costly damage and time-consuming repairs. Here are some tips to consider when installing tile on a concrete slab outdoors, such as on a porch or patio. 22") 300 dpi Standard License. But the reason for including any fall, rather than making the surface level, is to allow the concrete surface to drain. Use sealants as deemed necessary on the floor and around the drain. P411 P412 P413--P421 P422 P423--P431 P432 P433-- Fan SlabFan Slab. Another issue that could cause erosion under concrete is a burst water pipe. Pipes under concrete slabs. A slope of ¼" (6mm) per foot is generally recommended, but check local codes and conditions. Introduction to Paver Pedestal System. Cracking of concrete slabs is a common occurrence, but it is not necessarily a major problem. A slab-on-ground is supported on the subsoil and is usually reinforced with reinforcing bars or welded wire mesh. It is best to use a laser level to align the forms for. (425) 577-6293 · 17616 15th Ave SE Ste 106B Bothell, WA 98012. • Stacking : U-drains are to be stacked on level and stable ground to avoid cracking of base slab. Pervious concrete used in an active mitigation system must treat runoff from other features on-site as well, including buildings, areas paved with conventional impervious concrete, and buffer zones, which may or may not be planted. DrainGuard composite foundation drainage systems drain groundwater away from the exterior of your foundation or basement. Mostly, stamped concrete is for overlays on an existing concrete slab. drainage within the pavement structure. You are here: Landscaping Supplies / Slabs - Concrete / Provence Slab Collection Provence 3 piece Modular Slab Designed using our revolutionary Satura™ color technology, Provence Slab offers the most natural looking paver on the market that emulates the look and texture of natural bluestone or ledgerock. Footing drain pipe is located exterior of the footings below the slab and is surrounded by washed stone and filter fabric. 150mm grade C20 concrete surround to manhole. This foil is protected from lime in curing concrete. Ltd commenced business in September 1996,with a staff combing together many decades of knowledge and experience within the precast concrete, transport and specialists drainage industries. asphalt or concrete driveways. is a commercial/industrial construction company offering concrete services, and a variety of related services ranging from concrete repair, truck wells, underground storm drainage and site prep. To ensure your raised bed won't get waterlogged once installed, perform a simple test. Specialised sanitary systems such as for factories or hospitals are not included. In order to avoid any cracking and to just generally ensure that your slab lasts longer, it's important to have proper drainage for your concrete. Typical 2' x 16' asphalt driveway section cut out and reinstalled with a steel reinforced concrete apron starting at $1095. ADA Guidelines state that the surface slope in handicapped parking places and the. My questions are, how far should the yard grade (sod) be below the bottom of the siding and what should be the minimum percent of slope from that. bottom slab (approx 2'-10" thick) of concrete basin containing water or wastewater; multiple "trains" divided by 2'-0" walls - each one has it's own drain. Liquid phase water will be held by the fines in the granular material creating a reservoir of water that can only dry upwards into the slab leading to problems with floor finishes and floor coverings. Home / Products & Services / GB / Precast Concrete / Drainage. Cons of a Slab Foundation. The crushed stone drainage layer under the basement concrete slab should be vented to the atmosphere to control soil gas ( Figure 3 ). While the types of slabs available vary greatly, the principles and methods of laying slabs remain largely the same. They usually remove the sawed concrete and get it out of the building for you. In this section several typical slab-on-grade sections are illustrated and described. Homestead Concrete & Drainage is fully licensed to conduct business in the State of Florida and maintains all necessary licenses to perform the RFP Scope of Services, and is also a certified 8a, Hubzone, SBE, HBE, DBE, MBE firm registered with the Small Business Administrations South Florida District Office. Unlike conventional “inactive” rebar, which only helps keep the slab intact after cracking, post-tension tendons continually contribute to the structural integrity of home. Concrete slab shower drain guidance drainage reshaping our footprint page 2 how to plumb a bat bathroom the how to fit a shower tray the family the average to move a shower drain Moving Shower Drain Concrete Bat Plumbing Diy HomeHow To Install A Fibergl …. Frequently it's referred to as a concrete masonry unit. Install drain tile (perforated plastic drainage pipe) along the exterior (or interior) of the footings of basement and crawlspace walls to provide drainage around the foundations. The cracks in this case ranged in width (measured across the crack) from "hairline" (less than 1/16") to. Make sure you bevel the area around the drain spot so that the water won't pool and will instead easily drain into it. Since I have to break more concrete and go further down, I am thinking about cutting the drain before the trap, going to PVC, extending it horizontally. A manhole cover or grate for slab construction can be precast flange up into the concrete slab for traffic applications or installed flange up into an existing structure opening for non-traffic situations. Drainage Specialists covering WR4 recommended by other customers in WR4. Welded wire mesh can also help reduce shrinkage cracking, but only if it is placed in the middle or upper half of the slab, but at least 2 inches below the surface. Vapor Barriers under Concrete Floor Slabs: Friend or Foe? by Steve Ragan, Director, Research and Technical Services The answer to this controversial question, from both angles, is a qualified "yes. Re: Concrete Slab Vs Block Vs Pier / Post Foundations For minimum initial site impact and for long life as erosion inevitably goes on, I would look at Sonotubes in augured holes with posts above the minimal projection above grade. The foundation is concrete. Purpose and scope. Figures 4-9 through 4-11, and 4-15 show configurations with insulation on the exterior surface of the foundation. Installing a sub-slab system is a job for our experienced basement waterproofing specialists. Thoroughly dampen the gravel. For hand troweling work especially, kneeling boards provide a smooth way to support your weight on the wet concrete while moving easily along the slab surface. The Reflectix 48 in. If the crown faces down, you'll end up creating a trough in the slab where water can pool. 70 meters (22 feet) long by 3. 2) Steel working stress (fc) – typically a value equivalent to 75% of the steel yield strength is used for working stress. Use a scratch template, typically, a piece of 2-by-4 or 2-by-6 lumber equal to the specified slab thickness with stakes attached to the top surface at each end, or a string line across the top of the forms to. A concrete slab that is 10 feet long should have a slope away from the home of 2 1/2 inches. Business listings of Precast Concrete Slabs, Precast Cc Slabs manufacturers, suppliers and exporters in Bengaluru, Karnataka along with their contact details & address. Topsoil Is Stripped Rebar Used For Slab Construction Pouring concrete Concrete Slab Finishing. I want to add a bathtub near the toilet. The concrete needs anywhere from 1 to 14 days to cure, depending on the weather and conditions. Learn how to expose weep screed, create an exterior drain, and install a grounding rod to a pool pump in order to fix drainage problems in stucco and concrete. 52 (14 used & new offers) NDS 864GMTL 5-Inch Pro Channel Drain Kit with Metal Grate, 5 in, Black. Sub slab bat drainage system excavation before concrete slab floor floor drain basics shower drain concrete slab issue 7 4 floor and wall coverings The Best Way To Repair A Hole In Concrete Slab Before TilingThe Best Way To Repair A Hole In Concrete Slab Before TilingExcavation Before Concrete Slab Floor Poured Main Line MiniInstall… Read More ». drainage slope on concrete slab View only topic: Collection of Best Practices edited by the moderator. Concrete Blend is a straightforward mix of coarse sand and 10mm aggregate and is light brown in appearance. What drainage solution do you need to solve?. paving and driveway details. To ensure your raised bed won't get waterlogged once installed, perform a simple test. Concrete saw cutting overview. The subbase layer is typically used to protect the pavement from the effects of frost heave and/or concrete slabs were placed directly on top of the subgrade without any base/subbase layers. CLICK HERE to get FREE & FAST BIDS from local concrete slab contractors. For over 50 years, Crete-Sleeve® has been producing the highest quality plastic hole forms for the construction industry. (425) 577-6293 · 17616 15th Ave SE Ste 106B Bothell, WA 98012. Need advice on how to add drain in concrete slab home. The slab on ground is in direct contact with the typical draining layer such as a gravel, sand or a. To cut concrete with a 15-amp circular saw, start by using chalk to mark cut lines on the surface of the slab. Clogged drain pipe under concrete slab? Hello all, I am trying to clear a clog in my kitchen sink drain, unfortunately, the snake will go about 10 feet in, and hits a blockage that it cannot clear. The Gravel base has as its major function to distribute the load uniformly over the soil surface. Reported by: ProMatcher Research Team. Our concrete contractors cater soley to individuals that are looking for upscale, high quality concrete work. A standard brush finish will likely be on the low end of the price range, while a decorative finish with coloring will be on the high end of the. Under Slab Tunneling vs Cutting Slabs for Foundation Repair. Concrete is an amazing material, but it has an Achilles heel. Concrete slabs longevity is greatly affected by the movement of the earth. Bull Float to Smooth the Surface. My responsibilities included design of the viaduct substructure, verification of the viaduct pre-stressed precast concrete girder design and design of piled foundations with geotechnical engineers. Poor Drainage; Poor Soil Preparation; Symptoms of Foundation Problems. concrete as usual. 04 meters (10 feet) wide existing terrain. Builder’s Note: Adding 1” of sand over the Reflectix ® Concrete Slab Insulation will facilitate water drainage and shorten the actual curing time. Cooke Precast Concrete Pty. You can hire someone to saw a trench in the concrete floor from where the drain will be to where the drain pipe will exit the building. CONCRETE PAVING MOULD / SLAB / BRICK / FLAG - Drainage channel mould Block measures : 500mm x 160mm depth 60mm Made out of Poly Urethane Highly durable flexible mould Hard wearingLong lasting Each mould can be reused many times! If you have any questions please email: [email protected] Need advice on how to add drain in concrete slab home. for a 6" slab with thicker edges, styrofoam beneath the slab, and wire mesh. Atlas Concrete Products is a family-owned and operated company that specializes in a large variety of custom precast products. Planning Drainage for an Existing Floor. Adding crushed stone under concrete is an excellent way to allow water to drain, because it can flow through the spaces between rocks, thereby preventing it from standing underneath the surface. The backfill material itself also significantly affects water drainage around the wall. Adding radiant heat, extra dirt work, or grading to the sub-base costs extra. Plain Concrete Hardstandings Plain, unadorned mass concrete, straight from the mixer, levelled, compacted and floated to a smooth finish is a simple, cost-effective and highly useful surface for paving, for shed and garage bases, for driveways and dozens of other uses. Thank you all for your attention to this! I really appreciate the advice! @c_g_lima, the problem with replacing the entire drain pipe all the way to the trap is that I can't seem to access the trap. The cookie settings on this website are set to 'allow all cookies' to give you the very best experience. 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